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On average, improved management of cropland, whether enhanced rotation, adoption of no-till or stubble retention, has resulted in small gains in soil organic carbon compared to conventional management across a range of Australian soils. However, even with improved management, declines in soil organic carbon stocks are still observed with traditional management practices often resulting in losing soil organic carbon at a greater rate.

Changes in management practices need to be carefully considered in relation to what is practical, economical and appropriate for the long-term goals of the enterprise.