Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera)is a perennial shrub that is not restricted by climate, and that tolerates most soil types and coastal conditions. It is a serious threat to native vegetation.
- erect perennial shrub to 2m, or much taller in sheltered sites, with a woody trunk
- leaves are 3-8cm long, bright green and waxy, with irregular serrated edges
- flowers are bright yellow and daisy-like
- fruits are dry berries 6-8mm in diameter; they turn from green to black, then flake off to show a white inner coat
- each fruit holds one seed which is bone-coloured and very hard.
Why is it a problem?
- serious threat to native vegetation (rarely found in crops or pastures)
- establishes in many native vegetation types (scrub, woodland and forest)
- establishes readily on disturbed sites such as cleared, cultivated or burnt areas
- invasive due to rapid growth, a large seed store in the soil, and the ability to regenerate after fire
- dense stands drastically alter the habitat of native birds and animals.
- Eyre Peninsula – isolated patchy populations
- Northern pastoral – one record in Flinders Ranges
- Northern agricultural districts and Yorke Peninsula – small, isolated infestations
- Murray Mallee – isolated plants along the Murray River
- South East – isolated infestations on roadsides, reserves and some native vegetation
- Central region – widespread in the Adelaide hills.
- not restricted by climate and will tolerate most soil types and coastal conditions
- reproduces by seed, which germinates at any time of year but mainly in autumn
- grows rapidly over winter and some plants flower in their first year
- flowers are formed in late winter and spring and the ripe seeds are shed in summer
- the hard seed coat allows seed to remain dormant in the soil for many years
- a fire will stimulate all the seed to germinate at once.
How it spreads
- birds eat the fruit of boneseed and transport it to other locations
- rabbits, foxes, and cattle also eat the fruit and spread the seeds in their droppings
- contaminated soil and water can also carry seeds.